The original B-WISE sample had participants; however, only participants were included in these analyses examining the significant correlates of both interracial dating intentions and behaviors.
Four dichotomous dependent variables were of interest in this study. Two control variables, past year drug use and criminal justice status, were included in the multivariate models as they were part of the sampling strategy. Criminal justice status measured if the participant was recruited from prison, a probation office, or the community.
The community sample was the reference category. The sociodemographic variables of age, household income, and education were also included the analyses. Age and education were continuous variables measured in number of years. Household income was measured in income categories; however, for use in this analysis, each response was assigned the middle dollar value in tens of thousands of the range they selected. Examples included mistreatment from friends, coworkers, or institutions because you were black, being suspected of doing something wrong because you were black, or being called a racist name.
Responses to all items in the scale were summed, so higher values in the SRE indicate more racist life experiences. Questions for this scale were statements, and response options came in the form of a seven-point Likert scale measuring the extent to which respondents agreed or disagreed with the statements i.
Negative items were reverse-coded. Higher scores on the CMI represented a higher level of cultural mistrust toward whites. This study examines the significant correlates of both African American women's interracial dating behavioral intentions as well as actual behaviors with both white men and Hispanic men. Descriptive statistics are presented for both the independent and dependent variables.
Next, two paired t-tests are conducted to identify significant differences in African American women's interracial dating intentions with white versus Hispanic men, and with dating white men as compared to Hispanic men. As the dependent variables of interest are dichotomous, multivariate logistic regression was used 1 2. The first two sets of multivariate models examine if perceptions about partner availability, cultural mistrust, and experiences of racism are significant correlates of whether an African American woman would date someone white or Hispanic, respectively.
The third and fourth sets of multivariate models explore if these same independent variables are significant correlates of whether an African American woman has ever dated someone white or Hispanic, respectively. All models include socio-demographic and control variables.
In each of these four sets of models, variables are introduced in a stepwise progression, adding variables categorically as follows: For the sets of models identifying the interracial dating behaviors, a final step of adding interracial relationship intentions as an independent variable is also included. Odds ratios, standard errors, and likelihood ratio chi-square tests are presented for all multivariate models.
Figures of predicted probabilities are included to facilitate interpretation of findings. Descriptive statistics for variables included in the multivariate models are displayed in Table 1. Respondents averaged approximately 12 years of education in this sample. Two paired t-tests were conducted to identify if significant differences existed between African American women's intentions to date white men as compared to Hispanic men and their actual behaviors. The series of models displayed in Table 2 report the results of the stepwise multivariate models of intentions to date white men.
The same result was duplicated in Model 1F, but additionally, respondents who perceived that it was easier to find an eligible white man, as compared to an African American man, were over twice as likely to be willing to date a white man, all else equal OR: Predicted probabilities for both statistically significant variables are presented in Table 3 to more fully understand the statistical associations produced in Model 1F of Table 2.
Predicted probabilities revealed that respondents who felt it was not easier to find a white man and had high cultural mistrust had the lowest predicted probability of interracial dating intentions, with a predicted probability of 0. Meanwhile, respondents who reported that it was easier to find a white man and had low cultural mistrust had a predicted probability of 0.
Predicted probabilities are presented, confidence intervals in parentheses. Racist life events failed to reach statistical significance after including perceptions about partner availability in Model 2F.
Respondents with the perception that it is easier to find an eligible Hispanic man were over twice as likely to be willing to date a Hispanic man, all else equal OR: Predicted probabilities for statistically significant variables are presented in Table 5 produced by the logistic regression of interracial dating intentions in Model 2F of Table 4.
Predicted probabilities revealed that respondents who felt it was not easier to find a Hispanic man and had high cultural mistrust had the lowest predicted probability of interracial dating intentions, with a predicted probability of 0. Meanwhile, respondents who felt it was easier to find a Hispanic man and had low cultural mistrust had a predicted probability of 0.
The third set of logistic regression models identified the significant correlates of having dated a white man see Table 6. Model 3F showed that, on average, being in prison in the past year was associated with an increase in the likelihood of a woman ever having dated someone white by a factor of 1. Finally, perceiving that it is easier to find an eligible white man was associated with an increase in the likelihood of having dated a white man by a factor of 2. Model 3G stepped in an additional independent variable, intentions to date a white man. With the inclusion of intentions to date someone white in the model, cultural mistrust and racist life events were no longer significant correlates of having dated a white man; however, one new variable, education, reached statistical significance.
All of the other variables remained significant and in the same direction. Finally, and predictably, respondents claiming they would date a white man was associated with an increase by a factor of The results displayed in Table 6 are further clarified by Table 7 , which provides the predicted probabilities of having ever actually dated a white man based on education, whether the respondent claimed they would date interracially, and whether the respondent believed it was easier to find an eligible white man.
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The results indicate a variety of trends, with the highest predicted probability of 0. On the other end of the spectrum, the lowest predicted probability of having ever dated a white man was for women with high education who said they would not date someone white and did not believe it was easier to find an eligible white man, with a value of 0.
The fourth and final set of logistic regression models identified the significant correlates having dated a Hispanic man see Table 8.
Model 4F included the same independent variables in the logistic regression model predicting intentions to date a Hispanic man Table 6 , Model 3F , and showed that, on average, being in prison in the past year was associated with an increase in the likelihood of a woman ever having dated someone Hispanic by a factor of 2. Additionally, perceiving it is easier to find an eligible Hispanic man was associated with an increase in the likelihood of having dated a Hispanic man by a factor of 2.
Model 4G included intentions to date a Hispanic man as an independent variable in identifying the significant correlates of having dated someone Hispanic. While the perception that it is easier to find an eligible Hispanic man was no longer a significant correlate in this model, predictably, a respondent claiming she would date a Hispanic man was associated with an increase by a factor of The results of Model 4 in Table 8 are further clarified by Table 9 , which, similar to Table 8 for white men, provides the predicted probabilities of having ever actually dated a Hispanic man based on education, whether the respondent claimed they would date interracially, and the respondent's perceptions about the availability of eligible Hispanic men.
On the other end of the spectrum, the lowest predicted probability of having ever dated a Hispanic man was for women with high education who said they would not date someone Hispanic and did not believe it was easier to find an eligible Hispanic man, with a value of 0. This is the first known study to explore correlates of both the interracial dating intentions and behaviors of socioeconomically disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky. This study is important in that it sheds light on how Wilson's MMPI operates over 25 years after its origin in two ways.
First, it examines the relationship between African American women's perceptions about partner availability both within and outside their racial group and interracial dating. Second, this study explores possible contradictions between African American women's interracial dating intentions and behaviors.
However, as much of this research occurred several decades ago and does not represent the direct voice of the African American women, it is unclear if African American women's preference to date African American men still exists, especially among economically disadvantaged African American women who face a smaller pool of African American male partners and may have less social capital and bargaining power in romantic relationships.
The importance of these findings are three-fold. First, this leads to serious skepticism regarding widley-held perceptions of African American women's unwillingness to cross racial lines romantically. Interestingly, while a depressed MMPI would likely drive African American women to seek interracial relationships, racist life events and cultural mistrust would seem to push them in the opposite direction; this study shows that in spite of the persistence of racism and other forms of oppression, disadvantaged African American women pursue and have relationships with white and Hispanic men.
Second, is important to note the statistically significant difference between interracial relationship behaviors and intentions with white men as compared to Hispanic men. There are a number of possible factors at play in this disparity. It could be an access issue, such that there is an increased social and geographic distance between African Americans and Hispanics as compared to African Americans and whites in Kentucky.
Thus, Hispanic men are not seen as viable relationship options and African American women report low intentions to date Hispanic men. This may be particularly important for economically disadvantaged African American women, as they may be more willing to seek out interracial partnerships with men in the most privileged racial category in the U.
Third, potential partners' relationship preferences play a large role in interracial relationship behaviors.
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The opportunities for African American women to date outside their race may be restricted as they may not be sought out as potential partners. For example, the study on white internet daters noted that white men preferred not to date African Americans Feliciano et al. In general, interracial relationship intentions and behaviors were both impacted by respondents' perception that it was easier to find an eligible non-African American man. A respondent's perception of low MMPI is likely to lead her to explore the possibility of interracial relationships.
In the past, laws and social norms exerted strong forces against interracial relationships, but this finding suggests that these social forces may have weakened, thus allowing economically disadvantaged African American women to expand their dating pool to also include members of other racial groups. This study revealed a negative relationship between cultural mistrust and interracial dating intentions, demonstrating that African American women with higher levels of cultural mistrust were less likely to be willing to date a white or a Hispanic man.
As a result of this cultural mistrust, these women are unlikely to pursue relationships outside of their race, and likely choose relationships with African American men or none at all.
U.S. Attitudes Toward Interracial Dating Are Liberalizing
This may explain why African American women as a group are particularly unlikely to marry when compared to other race and gender groups in the United States Banks, R. Multivariate findings also indicated that interracial relationship intentions were the most robust correlate of interracial relationship behavior.
Stated another way, African American women in this study who intended to date a white or Hispanic man were very likely to follow through on their intentions. Interestingly, increases in age were associated with an increase in having dated someone white but not Hispanic.
U.S. Attitudes Toward Interracial Dating Are Liberalizing – Population Reference Bureau
It could be that older individuals have spent more time being single and, facing a lower male marriageable pool of their own race, at some point looked outside their race for partnership. More educated African American women were less likely to have dated white men. This segregation would continue to limit the opportunities of individuals to date white men as they go through higher education, so although intentions may rise with education, opportunities for interracial relationships may still remain relatively low.